1, direct voltage protection: directcharge also called emergency charging, which belongs to the fast charging, when the battery voltage is generally low with high current and relatively high voltage on the battery, but there is a control point, also called protection, is the numerical table, when charging the battery terminal voltage these higher protection value, should stop charging. Direct voltage protection is generally the overcharge protection point voltage, battery voltage is not higher than that of the protection charge, otherwise it will cause overcharge, there is damage to the battery. 
2, charging control voltage: directcharge after the end of the battery charge and discharge controller will normally be for a period of time, so the voltage falls naturally, when the whereabouts of the "recovery voltage" value, will enter the charging state. Why should the design charge? When charging is completed, there may be some "backward" (the battery terminal voltage is relatively low, in order to get these individual molecules) to pull back, the battery end voltage of all is uniform, so it is necessary to high voltage with moderate current charging for a little while, the charge is also visible. "Equalizing charge". Charging time should not be too long, usually a few minutes to ten minutes, time is too long but harmful. For small systems equipped with a two battery, charging little significance. So, the controller has no charge, only two stages.
3, floating point voltage control: general is charging after the battery has been standing for a long time, the voltage falls naturally, when falling to "maintain voltage" point, enter the floating state, are currently using PWM (both pulse width modulation), similar to the "trickle charge" (the small current charging), a low battery voltage on the charge on a point, a low charge on a point, a shares to avoid the battery temperature continues to rise, it is good for the battery, because of the great influence on the internal temperature of the battery charge and discharge. In fact, the PWM mode is designed to stabilize the terminal voltage of the battery. By adjusting the pulse width, the charging current of the battery is reduced. This is a very scientific charging management system. Specifically, in the late charging stage and the remaining capacity of the battery (SOC) >80%, the charging current must be reduced to prevent excessive discharge (oxygen, hydrogen and acid gas) due to over charging.
4. Over release protection termination voltage: This is better understanding. The battery discharge can not be lower than this value, which is the rule of the national standard. Although battery manufacturers also have their own protection parameters (enterprises and standards), but eventually to the national standard close. Note that, for safety reasons, the 12V battery discharge protection voltage artificially plus 0.3V as a temperature compensation control circuit or zero drift correction, overdischarge protection voltage of 12V battery that is: 11.10v, then discharge protection voltage of 24V system for 22.20V. At present, many manufacturers of charge and discharge controllers adopt the 22.2v (24V) standard.
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