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Principle Of Solar Charging Controller
Jul 03, 2018

As we all know, the Solar Charge Controller has a IV curve, which indicates that the output performance of the solar panel represents the current voltage value. The voltage and current represented by the intersection of the two lines are the power of the solar panel. The disadvantage is that the IV curve varies with irradiance, temperature and service life. Irradiance is the density of radiation events on a given surface, usually expressed in the number of watts per square centimeter or square metre. If there is no mechanical sunlight tracking capability of solar panels, the irradiance will change about &plusmn in the year with the movement of the sun; 23 degrees. In addition, solar irradiance changes from horizon to horizon can cause output power to change throughout the day. To this end, A Morimi semiconductor developed a solar cell controller NCP1294 to achieve maximum peak power point tracking (MPPT) of the solar panel, which is charged with the highest energy efficiency. This article will introduce some of the main functions of the device and the problems needing attention in its application. Enhanced voltage mode PWM controller

NCP1294 is a fixed frequency voltage mode PWM feedforward controller, which contains all the basic functions required for voltage mode operation. As a charge controller for different topologies, such as Buck, boost, buck boost and flyback, NCP1294 is optimized for high frequency primary end control operations, with pulse current limiting and bidirectional synchronization, which supports a solar panel with a maximum power of up to 140 W. The device provides the MPPT function to locate the maximum power point and adjust it in real time according to the environment conditions to keep the controller close to the maximum power point, so as to extract the maximum energy from the solar panel and provide the best energy efficiency.     

Besides, NCP1294 also has the functions of soft start, precise control of duty cycle, less than 50 &mu, and A starting current, over voltage and under voltage protection. In solar energy applications, NCP1294 can be used as a flexible solution for module level power management (MLPM) solutions. The maximum power point tracking error of reference design based on NCP1294 is less than 5%, which can charge four batteries in series or parallel.


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